john iv of trebizond

According to Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, John had instructed them to only bring his father to him, but the men thought John would be more grateful if they killed his father the Emperor, and did so. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. [19] In discussing this document, Thierre Ganchou explains that it confirms clearly a terminus ante quem for John's death of 22 April 1460. While in Georgia John married Bagrationi, a daughter of King Alexander I, but he could not obtain sufficient support to establish himself in Trebizond. 259–283. Written in Caffa and dated 19 April 1460, this memorandum includes a postscript dated 5 May 1460, that states that John has died and was succeeded by his brother the despotes. [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). John was recognized as emperor in Trebizond some time before 28 October 1429, the date of the first document that mentions him on the throne. Although John owed his throne to a Genoese crew, he repeatedly failed to reimburse the Genoese for debts owed to them in 1431, and in 1441 refused to provide reparations for a Genoese ship ordered seized and looted six years earlier. Sphranzes, ch. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. Ask Login. [7] According to the Europäische Stammtafeln, his second wife was the daughter of Dawlat Berdi Khan of the Golden Horde, although no basis for this identification is given. An important family, the Kabasitai, offered to act as intermediaries; however, an interpolator of the History of Chalkokondyles, or Pseudo-Chalkokondyles,[5] states that they were John's "secret accomplices" for some of the Kabasitai had agreed to allow two of John's archontes into Emperor Alexios' tent, and once inside the archontes murdered Alexios around midnight. No contemporary chronicler or historian recorded the actual date of John's death. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. John Hutchins Rosser: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259. He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a Trapezuntine noblewoman. The two armies met at Kapanion. 3 likes. John IV of Trebizond died in 1459. John had been designated despotes, or heir apparent, by his father as early as 1417, but had come into conflict with his parents. Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of John II of Trebizond has received more than 36,714 page views. The Metropolitan of Trebizond joined the Byzantine clergy at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1438-1439). An important family, the Kabasitai, offered to act as intermediaries; however, an interpolator of the History of Chalkokondyles, or Pseudo-Chalkokondyles,[5] states that they were John's "secret accomplices" for some of the Kabasitai had agreed to allow two of John's archontes into Emperor Alexios' tent, and once inside the archontes murdered Alexios around midnight. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 [1]) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Further diplomatic initiatives by Genoa failed in 1443, and in 1447 the Genoese of Caffa advanced on Trebizond with their fleet, threatening to set up an embargo. Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. A Genoese document dated November 8, 1427 orders the consul at Caffa in the Crimea to keep on good terms with the Emperor of Trebizond for news of John arriving at Caffa had reached Genoa. John II of Trebizond (1262-16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1284 (succeeding George and preceding Theodora) and from 1285 to 1297 (succeeding Theodora and preceding Alexios II).. Since William Miller wrote his book on Trebizond, the scholarly consensus dated his death to 1458, although with some dissent to 1459 (Lampsides, Kursanskis) or simply state the broad limits 1458/9-1460 (Anthony Bryer). Family tree Parents and Siblings . Lot also includes: John VIII Palaeologus, 1425-1448. John IV of Trebizond. [2] As a result, his brother Alexander was designated despotes in his place. Death . Kuršanskis has argued that Alexios was correctly the son of John's brother Alexander. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 ) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. John apparently failed to cooperate, and in 1456 the Sultan dispatched his governor of Amasya Hizir Bey to attack Trebizond by both land and sea. Æ Follis or Tornese. tutto esatto qualsiasi . John had been designated despotes by his father as early as 1417, but did not see eye-to-eye with his parents. Chalkokondyles II.220; translated by Kaldellis, A. Vasiliev, "Tero Tafur, a Spanish Traveler of the XVth Century and His Visit to Constantinople, Trebizond, and Italy,". In 1442 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II sent out a fleet to plunder the shores and to attempt to capture the city. Concordanza . After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Trebizond and the Morea were left as the last remnants of the Byzantine imperial tradition. Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages. The Metropolitan of Trebizond joined the Byzantine clergy at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1438-1439). Constantinople mint. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. [14], However, these approaches to the Papacy were not marked by harmonious relations with the most important Western power concerned with Trebizond, the Republic of Genoa. Once these two sources are accepted as plausible, then there is no longer any basis to reject the evidence of the lost inscription Fallmerayer reported seeing on the Kule boylu. [18] Beginning with Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, modern scholars have inferred it from two records: one was a letter from John's successor and brother, David of Trebizond, dated 22 April 1459, but because it was associated with the dubious embassy led by Ludovico da Bologna, and internal inconsistencies, this letter has been considered at the least a partial forgery; the other record was a damaged inscription Fallmerayer reported to have seen in the citadel Kule boylu ("high tower"), which was made by John and dated to the year 6968 (= A.D. 1 September 1459 – 31 August 1460); however this inscription was never seen by any other historian, despite determined efforts, and the citadel itself has since been destroyed. Sphrantzes, however, was taken aback and explained to him that Mehmed's youth and seeming friendship were only ploys, and that under John's brother-in-law John VIII the empire had been deeply in debt, but now his new emperor was trying to change that. The city was deserted due to plague and likely to fall; John made his submission and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 2,000 gold pieces in return for the return the captives Hizir had taken. John had planned to attack Junayd from both land and sea; however, a strong wind prevented the sailors from landing and the Sheikh's men successfully counteracted, killing the pansebastos and scattering the army. Mehmed II immediately summoned John to pay tribute in Constantinople and imposed heavy tolls on Trapezuntine and Venetian shipping through the straits. Discussed in Rustam Shukurov, "The campaign of Shaykh Djunayd Safawi against Trebizond (1456 AD/860 AH)", Unless otherwise indicated, this section is based on, "La Date de la Mort du Basileus Jean IV Komnenos de Trebizonde", "The Fifteenth-century Bagratids and the Institution of Collegial Sovereignty in Georgia", "La descendance d'Alexis IV, empereur de Trébizonde. After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Trebizond and the Morea were left as the last remnants of the Byzantine imperial tradition. He is commonly said to have as many as three children—a son and either one or two daughters. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a Trapezuntine noblewoman. Emperor and Autocrat of all the East and Perateia, Byzantine Empire successor states [1204 - 1261] - [Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond]. Historical Popularity Index (HPI) 22. Shaykh Junayd soon arrived before the walls of Trebizond, but after three days he found the walls impregnable and marched his army south to ravage the district of Mesochaldia instead.[16]. In 1442 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II sent out a fleet to plunder the shores and to attempt to capture the city. In about 1426, Bagrationi married John IV of Trebizond. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. 30. translated in Marios Philippides. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. Apr 1, 2015 - Bagrationi (c.1411/2 – before 1438) was the first Empress consort of John IV of Trebizond. The penultimate Trapezuntine ruler, John IV, recognized the threat of the Ottomans. en For this purpose, he marched to Trebizond during Emperor John II Comnenus’ absence at Constantinople in April 1282; and although he failed to take the city, the Georgians occupied several provinces and helped John’s half-sister Theodora, daughter of Manuel I of Trebizond by his Georgian wife, Rusudan, seize the throne in 1285, only to be put suddenly to flight. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. parole . He is commonly said to have as many as three children—a son and either one or two daughters. John IV of Trebizond Net Worth, Biography, Age, Height, Weight, Married, Ethnicity, Nationality, Wife, Husband Chalkokondyles II.220; translated by Kaldellis, A. Vasiliev, "Tero Tafur, a Spanish Traveler of the XVth Century and His Visit to Constantinople, Trebizond, and Italy,". VF. Alexios (1455–1463), who was beheaded at Constantinople. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Empire of Trebizond - John IV Reigned: 1446 - 1458 A.D. Denomination: AR Asper Obverse: St. Eugenius seated on horse walking right. Bagrationi, Wife of John IV of Trebizond - Death. Discussed in Rustam Shukurov, "The campaign of Shaykh Djunayd Safawi against Trebizond (1456 AD/860 AH)", Unless otherwise indicated, this section is based on, "La Date de la Mort du Basileus Jean IV Komnenos de Trebizonde", "The Fifteenth-century Bagratids and the Institution of Collegial Sovereignty in Georgia", "La descendance d'Alexis IV, empereur de Trébizonde. The city was deserted due to plague and likely to fall; John made his submission and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 2,000 gold pieces in return for the return the captives Hizir had taken. Once these two sources are accepted as plausible, then there is no longer any basis to reject the evidence of the lost inscription Fallmerayer reported seeing on the Kule boylu. Tema. [19] In discussing this document, Thierre Ganchou explains that it confirms clearly a terminus ante quem for John's death of 22 April 1460. Ganchou explains the discrepancies in the rest of the evidence facilely. [13] He also pursued Western support through effecting a union with the Roman Catholic Church. Because this document shows that this news reached Caffa between 19 April and 5 May, and that Trebizond was not more than a two weeks' journey from Caffa, this strongly suggests John died in April 1460. According to the Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten (1978) by Detlev Schwennicke, Bagrationi was dead by 1438. [22] However, Kuršanskis has shown that John had only one child—Theodora Megale Komnene, better known by her Mongol appellation "Despina Hatun". 1/4 Asper MA-Shop Kauf mit Garantie Angebot mit Münzen und Medaillen von der Antike bis zum Euro. John had planned to attack Junayd from both land and sea; however, a strong wind prevented the sailors from landing and the Sheikh's men successfully counteracted, killing the pansebastos and scattering the army. His reign was dominated by ongoing attempts to defend Trebizond from its Turkmen neighbors and the increasingly aggressive Ottoman Empire to the west. John escaped by means of his fleet, and made it back to Trebizond. Reference: BCV 2642 Weight: 1 gms Diameter: 15.1 mm THE EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND. While in Georgia John married Bagrationi, a daughter of King Alexander I, but he could not obtain sufficient support to establish himself in Trebizond. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. Reverse: John seated on horse walking right. Shaykh Junayd soon arrived before the walls of Trebizond, but after three days he found the walls impregnable and marched his army south to ravage the district of Mesochaldia instead.[16]. John I Axouchos (Greek: Ιωάννης Α΄ Αξούχος, Iōannēs I Axoukhos) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1235 to 1238. Further diplomatic initiatives by Genoa failed in 1443, and in 1447 the Genoese of Caffa advanced on Trebizond with their fleet, threatening to set up an embargo. [11] According to Chalkokondyles, Hizir raided the countryside, even penetrating into the marketplace of Trebizond, capturing altogether about two thousand people. 557, a manuscript now at the Vatican Library. [13] He also pursued Western support through effecting a union with the Roman Catholic Church. He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a… John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty before Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the tribute was raised to 3,000 gold pieces. (13mm, 0.50 g, 6h). John I Axouchos (Greek: Ιωάννης Ἀξούχος, romanized: Iōannēs Axouchos) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1235 to 1238. John IV. Pero Tafur, in his travel memoirs, records that when he visited Trebizond in 1438 John IV had a Turkish wife. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene.John had been… Retowski 1-7 (for type); Bendall, Trebizond 80; SB 2642. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. John then fled to Georgia. John IV of Trebizond. The first was from his half-brother George, who returned to Trebizond and made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the throne. Languages Editions (L) 5.92 . His father Alexios rode out with his retinue and camped nearby. Chalkokondyles II.222; translated by Kaldellis. Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. John was recognized as emperor in Trebizond some time before 28 October 1429, the date of the first document that mentions him on the throne. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). John IV married an unnamed Turkish lady as his second consort. Byzantine John IV, Trebizond. No contemporary chronicler or historian recorded the actual date of John's death. [7] It may be both versions contain part of the truth: although John ascended to the throne on the murder of his father, it may be the Turkish Sultan provided John with financial or military support to return to Trebizond. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty before Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the tribute was raised to 3,000 gold pieces. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. The apprehensiveness towards Genoa was contrasted by friendlier relations with Venice, although the Venetians never recovered their former influence in the Black Sea. enwiki John IV of Trebizond; eswiki Juan IV de Trebisonda; fawiki ژان چهارم ترابوزان; frwiki Jean IV de Trébizonde; glwiki Xoán IV de Trebisonda; huwiki IV. Biography. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. The two armies met at Kapanion. 7, 18; DOC IV p. 433, 13b; Schlumberger pl. Pero Tafur, in his travel memoirs, records that when he visited Trebizond in 1438 John IV had a Turkish wife. [8] His brother Alexander was afterwards exiled to Constantinople, where the Spanish Ambassador Tafur met him eight years later. [4], Landing at Saint Phokas (the modern Kordyle), John and his supporters made their base in the monastery. Lat. St. Eugenius on horseback right, holding cross / John on horseback right, holding three-pronged scepter. Noting that the letter appears between two other documents dated to 1459, Ganchou blames a "lazy scribe" for writing that year when transcribing this letter, instead of the correct 1460. Pero Tafur provides a detail at variance with the account of Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, for he reports that John became emperor with help of the Turkish Sultan. 37k. Since William Miller wrote his book on Trebizond, the scholarly consensus dated his death to 1458, although with some dissent to 1459 (Lampsides, Kursanskis) or simply state the broad limits 1458/9-1460 (Anthony Bryer). Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. [18] Beginning with Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, modern scholars have inferred it from two records: one was a letter from John's successor and brother, David of Trebizond, dated 22 April 1459, but because it was associated with the dubious embassy led by Ludovico da Bologna, and internal inconsistencies, this letter has been considered at the least a partial forgery; the other record was a damaged inscription Fallmerayer reported to have seen in the citadel Kule boylu ("high tower"), which was made by John and dated to the year 6968 (= A.D. 1 September 1459 – 31 August 1460); however this inscription was never seen by any other historian, despite determined efforts, and the citadel itself has since been destroyed. Chalkokondyles II.222; translated by Kaldellis. Contribution à la prosopographie des Grands Comnènes", Profile of Alexios IV and his children in "Medieval Lands" by Charles Cawley, Vougiouklaki Penelope, "John IV Grand Komnenos". The year "1459" in the letter carried by the embassy of Ludovico da Bologna was an error in transcription: the original letter has not been found, and may no longer exist. [23] The two doubtful children are: Emperor and Autocrat of all the East and Perateia, John Hutchins Rosser: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. John IV began his reign by punishing the physical murderers of his father, then burying his father in state in the metropolitan cathedral. [4], Landing at Saint Phokas (the modern Kordyle), John and his supporters made their base in the monastery. Written in Caffa and dated 19 April 1460, this memorandum includes a postscript dated 5 May 1460, that states that John has died and was succeeded by his brother the despotes. Ask Login. According to Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, John had instructed them to only bring his father to him, but the men thought John would be more grateful if they killed his father the Emperor, and did so. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1403 ndash; 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459. John IV was married twice, first to an unnamed daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia,[20] then prior to November 1437 he married the daughter of a Turkish sultan. John IV went on to marry an unnamed Turkish lady. John IV went on to marry an unnamed Turkish lady. νός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 [1]) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Although John owed his throne to a Genoese crew, he repeatedly failed to reimburse the Genoese for debts owed to them in 1431, and in 1441 refused to provide reparations for a Genoese ship ordered seized and looted six years earlier. John IV of Trebizond Date of Birth, Nationality, Hometown, Birth Place, Zodiac Sign, Weight & Height in Meters John II Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ἰωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1262 – 16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297. Pero Tafur provides a detail at variance with the account of Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, for he reports that John became emperor with help of the Turkish Sultan. 30. translated in Marios Philippides. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. According to a passage considered to be an interpolation in the history of Laonikos Chalkokondyles, he accused his mother Theodora of having an affair with an unnamed protovestiarios, whom he killed, then held his parents captive in the citadel until the palace staff released them. [12], Aware of the Ottoman advance against the remaining Byzantine possessions in the Morea, John IV attempted to bolster his position by resorting to an old family tradition; the same year David delivered the tribute to Mehmed, John married his daughter Theodora to Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu. [2] As a result, his brother Alexander was designated despotes in his place. John then fled to Georgia. John had been designated despotes, or heir apparent, by his father as early as 1417, but had come into conflict with his parents. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. , a manuscript now at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence ( 1438-1439 ) Western support effecting! Had been designated despotes in his travel memoirs, records that when he visited Trebizond 1438! 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