rosencrantz and guildenstern are dead movie explanation

New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985. The main setting is Denmark. However, Hamlet himself appears at the end of the act, so the setting may be within the castle itself. Throughout the play, the seemingly inexplicable events they participate in are thematically developed by Stoppard to illustrate this underlining confusion and absurdity. Stoppard's play brings a Shakespearian twist to the Theatre of the Absurd, a genre popularized by existential European playwrights in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. The second act makes use of some of Shakespeare’s original lines in Hamlet, with which it soon becomes obvious Stoppard’s play is dovetailing. Word Count: 525. We know "Hamlet" is about Hamlet. The play suggests through them the confusion and isolation of life, a view that Stoppard shares with many of his contemporaries, including playwright Harold Pinter. GradeSaver, 20 June 2006 Web. The play expands upon the exploits of two minor characters from Shakespeare's Hamlet, the courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot is often cited as a source from which Stoppard draws much philosophical influence. Brassell, Tim. Waiting for Godot—there's just no telling what sort of effect it had on our society, who wrote because of it, or wrote in a different way because of it. The two characters engage in repetitive, often nonsensical dialogue as they fumble through a plot that is incomprehensible to them. There is a ton going on here. Closer to home for Stoppard, England was responding to demands for independence from Rhodesia and conflicts heated up between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland. c.1600-1601) … By year's end, 389,000 U.S. troops are in South Vietnam and the bombing of North Vietnam is already extensive, despite growing protest to the war in the U.S. and abroad. As an actor, he belongs by rights in the play and experiences no unease over his situation, noting “I’ve been here before.” So have they all—each time Hamlet is performed—but only the professional actor has been granted an apparent awareness of that fact. Guildenstern is questioning this phenomenon and explains it poorly while Rosencrantz simply accepts it but feels bad for Guildenstern losing so much money. The play may come off as a random sequence of events that the two main characters endure, but when aspects of the play are closely examined, there is a method to Stoppard’s writing. The Turbulent Sixties and Stoppard as a Political Playwright Is Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead a tragedy or a comedy or something in between? In Stoppard's revision, the characters, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are not fully developed in the original play, fumble around bewildered about their mission and the reason for their existence. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. They interrupt an ongoing play and demand that the director stage their play. c.1600-1601) and presents their dilemma at finding themselves trapped in a series of dramatic events over which they have no control. There is a brief blackout and the play resumes at that point in Hamlet when Claudius leaves the performance of The Murder of Gonzago, horrified by its similarity to his own murderous actions. In Stoppard's revision, the characters, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are not fully developed in the original play, fumble around bewildered … He persuades the actors to bet double or nothing with him on a series of coin tosses and by betting “heads” wins from them the price of a performance. Accessible for most students. Do you mean when they discuss the reality of death? resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. In 1967, 29-year-old Stoppard became the youngest playwright to have his work performed by the National Theatre; the play opened later that year on Broadway. They must be entirely untouched by any suspicion of usefulness. Already a member? These and other playwrights rejected the concept of a rational and ordered universe and tended to see human life as absurd and lacking purpose. Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead is a 1990 tragicomedy film written and directed by Tom Stoppard based on his play of the same name. ", By the mid-1960s, the Theatre of the Absurd had lost much of its shock value and was already becoming outmoded, taking its last flourish in America from the early work of Edward Albee. Like wine it is an acquired taste with complex flavors. Instead of morally dethroning Hamlet, Stoppard brings two minor characters to the foreground, allowing him to address issues relevant to his contemporary postmodern audience while simultaneously minimizing the dominance of Shakespearian tradition. The Player serves a very different function. By chance, the coin continues to land on heads. Act 3 opens on board a ship bound for England. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead through its characters, themes, ideas, and events and determine what it has to say about both the world of theatre and the world at large. This anomaly is intentional, for the setting of the whole play is more one of “inner space” (inside the mind) than any physical place. 1966: French President Charles de Gaulle proposes that Europe strive for more economic and political independence from the powerful domination of the United States and Russia, announcing on March 11 that France will withdraw her troops from NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and requests that NATO remove all its bases and headquarters from French soil. The play was first produced by an amateur company in the Edinburgh festival on April 11, 1966. Why Guildenstern feels indignant on the player? Alabama Governor George Wallace signs a state bill on September 2 that forbids Alabama's public schools from complying with desegregation guidelines. As Hamlet leaves with Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern admit that their plan to question him has failed miserably and they are as puzzled as ever by their dilemma. But if Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are comically foolish because they seem overwhelmed by the power of the Shakespearean world, they are also comically noble because their ordinary presence seems eventually to deflate that Shakespearean high seriousness. An appreciation for Shakespeare and theatre is helpful. What specific things do they question, of what are they unsure or in doubt? They're dead! eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. It is an elegant film that becomes increasingly humorous and satisfying over years. However, later assessments have suggested that Stoppard uses the Theatre of the Absurd more for comic effects than philosophical meaning. However, the film follows a clear timeline that takes you from the duo’s traveling to Elsinore, meeting the players, arriving in Elsinore, interacting with king and queen and then Hamlet, taking to sea, and finally ending up on the … Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. That’s what people do. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 1093. Stoppard: The Mystery and the Clockwork. Between the amateur Edinburgh production and the publication of the second edition in 1968, only a few changes were made to the script. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Summary. As the coin is called "heads" or "tails," the winner places the coin in his sack. Corballis, Richard. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern wander through a featureless wilderness, flipping coins, which keep coming up heads. First Rosencrantz and then Guildenstern disappears into the shadows, and the lights come up to reveal the last scene of Hamlet, with Hamlet, Claudius, Gertrude and Laertes all lying dead on the stage. But in 1966 and 1967, many critics saw Stoppard as a late example of this absurdist movement, with Charles Marowitz asserting in May of 1967 that Stoppard's play eventually became "a blinding metaphor about the absurdity of life.". Apart from his parodic use of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Stoppard is most clearly parodying Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot, whose two main characters, Vladimir and Estragon, play word games and "pass the time" as they wait for someone who never arrives. Hunter, Jim. Sales, Roger, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Penguin, 1988. Perlette, John M., "Theatre at the Limit: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead in Modem Drama, Vol. I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for here. Word Count: 903. In 1972, Kenneth Friehling provided a 38 minute audio cassette commentary on the play for the Everett/Edwards Modern Drama Cassette Curriculum Series out of Deland, Florida. You can’t go through life questioning your situation at every turn.”. The ambassadors count the bodies, name them, and then conclude there are eight deaths in all. As the young double act stumble their way in and out of the action of Shakespeare’s iconic drama, they become increasingly out of their depth as their version of the story unfolds. Matuz, Roger, editor, Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. The most significant change was the ending. Summary Absurdism Themes References Menu Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead: Summary [10] A plot similar to Hamlet, but a meaning very different The play begins with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern absent-mindedly flipping a coin while journeying through they forest. New York: Grove Press, 1982. Gordon, Robert, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Jumpers, and The Real Thing: Text and Performance, Macmillan, 1991. Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead ( 1990) Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead. A very accessible introduction to Stoppard that includes a short chapter on Rosencrantz and Guildenstem Are Dead. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987. In the world of theater as well, it seemed as if the last thing sought after was a noble hero. When the two fall asleep, however, Hamlet steals the letter from them and replaces it with another. True or False? Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead masterfully revives an almost impenetrable tradition of Shakespearean theater. The year 1966, like rest of the mid-1960s, was extremely turbulent both socially and politically. What makes Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead a satire? Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are taking Hamlet to England after the death of Polonius, perhaps. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." Rosencrantz and Guildenstern learn that Hamlet has indeed slain Polonius, and they are ordered by Claudius to take him to England along with a letter for the English King. When Hamlet enters, in the middle of his “To be or not to be” soliloquy, Rosencrantz resolves to confront him but finds himself unable to speak. Metafictional Characters in Modern Drama. Meanwhile, Massachusetts voters elected Edward Brooke the first black U.S. senator since Reconstruction. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two elizabethan courtiers from Shakespeare's Hamlet, struggle to come to terms with their relationship to the script that controls them and their existence, in this adaptation of sir Tom Stoppard's meta theatrical play. which exasperates Guildenstern. Rosencrantz (Gary Oldman) and Guildenstern (Tim Roth) ramble obliviously through Elsinore Castle and its environs as the events of William Shakespeare's "Hamlet" unfold around them. In their first entry into the Shakespearean world, Stoppard indicates that the two courtiers are "adjusting their clothing" before they speak, and as they use the lines given them in Shakespeare's play, their inflated style is comic because it seems postured and implies desperate ineptitute. Tom Stoppard’s stage directions for act 1 describe the scene as “Two Elizabethans passing the time in a place without any visible character.” The location seems to be a featureless place, neither indoors nor out, where the courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern discourse and toss coins. How far is it true? The Theatre of Tom Stoppard. Stoppard also uses his characters themselves as dramatic devices. Beckett's play begins on a country road that is distinctly non-descript, so when Stoppard specifies in his opening stage directions that "two Elizabethans [are] passing the time in a place without any visible character" it is sufficient to recall Waiting for Godot for those who are very familiar with the Beckett classic. In Act 1 the player calls Rosencrantz and Guildenstern “fellow artists,” the Player lists the group’s dramatic specialties, which include sexual performances which Guildernstern feels is odd. However, Stoppard revises the play from the inside out, changing the very nature of the characters to reflect the current postmodern dilemma. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Everyman doubled, caught up in the rush of history—in their case, theatrical history—and unable to resist its forward flow. We'll try to discuss a few of the more complicated aspects, but you might have other ideas to add, too. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern watch Hamlet furtively and speculate on their strange situation and its possible consequences. Hayman, Ronald, Contemporary Playwrights: Tom Stoppard, Heinemann, 1977. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. There is thus in Stoppard's play a kind of comic victory for the underdog, perhaps most clearly expressed at the beginning of Act II when Rosencrantz responds to Hamlet's esoteric Shakespearean language by saying, "half of what he said meant something else, and the other half didn't mean anything at all." Act I opens with Rosencrantz (Ros) flipping a coin that has landed heads up over ninety times in a row. They reflect that it is "dark for day" but write it off to the assumption that they've sailed north. Act 2, which is interwoven with brief scenes from Hamlet, begins as the pair conclude their conversation with the Prince, the actual scene from Shakespeare’s play presumably having occurred in the interim. Act 1 opens with the two “passing the time in a place without any visible character.” They are tossing coins, Rosencrantz calling heads and Guildenstern tails, and Rosencrantz’s purse is already stuffed with the coins he has won when the story begins. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Summary. When Guildenstern seeks advice from him on how he and Rosencrantz should proceed, The Player responds, “Uncertainty is the normal state. Word Count: 543. And it is Stoppard's dexterity with the English language in addition to his acute philosophical lens that allows Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead to be more than a modern rendition of Hamlet, but also a work of art that lives and breathes on its own. They are welcomed by King Claudius and Queen Gertrude, who ask them to speak with their longtime friend, Hamlet, the Queen’s son, and undertake to discover what has caused the marked change in his behavior. Uncertainty is one of the themes of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Hamlet Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead Hamlet is an example of "Metatheatre", or "Theatre about Theatre". The play's central character, Jimmy Porter, became the model for the working-class anti-hero that would pervade British theater for the next decade, confronting head-on the oppressive dominance of history, tradition, and convention. Apparent location of the play’s first act. Jenkins, Anthony. Thematic interpretations of Stoppard’s work, with an interesting discussion of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead that explores their plight as a game where the rules are not understood by all the players. Every Good Boy Deserves Favor is set in a Russian prison hospital where one of the inmates is imprisoned for his political beliefs. Though full diplomatic and cultural relations with Vietnam have resumed, the American memory of failure and ignominy has yet to be exorcised. Stoppard's references to other literary texts are numerous and subtle, but parody as a literary style frequently imitates a serious work in order to demean it. 1966: After 8 years in power, South Africa's prime minister Henrik F. Verwoerd is assassinated on September 6 and succeeded a week later by Balthazar Johannes Vorster, who vows to continue the policies of apartheid (pronounced "ah-par-tate," it is a system of racial segregation and white dominance) in South Africa. About Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Read the Study Guide for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead…, Shakespeare's Hamlet: Transformation by Tom Stoppard, Reality and Illusion in Pinter and Stoppard. Corballis suggests that, with the death of tragedy in the twentieth century, Hamlet had to be redefined and that Guildenstern is the existential hero. Former Governor Wallace, an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1968 and 1972, is now partially paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair as a result of an assassination attempt in May of 1972. When Tom Stoppard produced Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, England was dealing with the aftermath of WWII and colonization, causing the public to question authority, challenge precedent, and debunk mythologies associated with power and prestige. First performed at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 1966, this tragicomedy tells Hamlet’s story from the perspective of two minor characters from Shakespeare’s iconic tragedy. Shakespeare capitalises on opportunities to comment on the nature of drama and actors when he has the Hamlet advise the players on how to say their lines. Like Stoppard, Pirandello reveals the seams of the stage itself - or, as Pirandello terms it, the "the theater in the theater." Includes the chapter “Stoppard’s Moon and Birdboot, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern,” an excellent discussion of the way in which Stoppard handles characters who move between different fictive realities. Through the rise in two-income families and the extensive development of day-care facilities, women have taken a dramatically increased role in the work force, moving from domestic positions into direct competition with men, though female salaries are statistically lower. Bareham, T., editor, Tom Stoppard: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Jumpers, Travesties: a Casebook, Macmillan, 1990. Rusinko, Susan, Tom Stoppard, Twayne, 1986. And for many years after his initial success, Stoppard seemed to write from a steadfastly apolitical point of view, claiming, perhaps puckishly, that "I must stop compromising my plays with this whiff of social application. Ros feels slightly guilty for taking so much money from his friend, but is not as tuned into the oddness of what is occurring. Word Count: 184. Relax. But at one point all the traveling players emerge from one of the barrels, and at the end of the play it is clear that the setting is, magically, not a ship but the Danish court. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1979. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Unfortunately, even after rehearsing with the game of questions, Hamlet gets the best of them by evading most of their inquiries. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is an absurdist, existential tragicomedy by Tom Stoppard, first staged at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1966. Three essays on the play, including invaluable essays by William E. Gruber and J. Dennis Huston that discuss how Stoppard uses the Shakespearean text. Today: African Americans enjoy far greater economic, social, and political mobility, and school integration is commonplace in America. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is a dramatic comedy by Sir Tom Stoppard. While Shakespeare's play has many moments of rich humor, it is basically serious and tragic, while Stoppard's treatment of the Shakespearean story is distinctly comic, even farcical. Ship. In a long section on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Cahn contrasts Stoppard's play with the traditional Theatre of the Absurd. Though not considered major plays in the Stoppard canon, these works clearly demonstrated Stoppard's capacity for engaging contemporary social and political issues. Sounds of sailors rise and it becomes clear Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are on a boat. Prufrock calls attention to his minor role in life by making a direct reference to Hamlet in the following passage: No, I am not Prince Hamlet, nor was meant to be; To swell a progress, start a scene or two. - "A weaker man might be moved to re-examine his faith, if in nothing else at least in the law of probability." The sections on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead include one that describes and comments on its first professional production at the Old Vic in 1967. Cahn, Victor L., Beyond Absurdity: The Plays of Tom Stoppard, Associated University Presses, 1979. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead weaves a subtle joke with remarkable wisdom that doesn't jump out and knock the viewer over. Generations of readers and theatre-goers who have silently struggled at times to understand the demanding dialogue of "the world's greatest playwright and the world's greatest play'' chuckle as the ordinary man speaks up. Then, back in their Stoppardian world, they are once again comically unheroic, as Rosencrantz whines, "I want to go home," and Guildenstern puts on his comical bravado, unconvincingly attempting to appear in control. While extremely entertaining, this play packs a surprising amount of highly intellectual The ship is set upon by pirates; Hamlet escapes, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern resolve to go on to England and see the king. The Theatre of the Absurd arose after World War II and flourished in the 1950s and early 1960s, initially and especially in France in the works of Eugene Ionesco (E-on-S'-co), Jean Genet (Shuh-nay'), and Samuel Beckett. Guildenstern wonders if they have entered a … Thus, we are led also to parody as a source of Stoppard's humor in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. A very readable critical study that includes a short chapter on Stoppard's first major play and a valuable interview with the author. A very thorough compendium of excerpts from the most important criticism on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Stoppard is also influenced by T.S. . Rosencrantz and Guildenstern live in a simpler world where the inevitability of death is not tragic but a natural part of life. ", As a result, the work following Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead—including such plays as The Real Inspector Hound (1968), Jumpers (1972), and Travesties (1974)—seemed to a number of critics to lack political and social awareness. 28, no. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead actively engages with Shakespeare’s Hamlet through quotation and visual cues. They have been casts as the fools, and despite their arduous journey towards enlightenment they have been denied understanding, purpose, and essential meaning. Apart from the simple pleasure of recognition that such parody provides a knowing audience, this parody enlarges the suggestiveness of Stoppard's text. Word Count: 440. The pair quickly realize Hamlet’s situation—his father dead, his mother remarried to his uncle, and his own position as heir to the throne usurped by that same uncle— and resolve to uncover his true feelings through careful questioning. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern watch the players rehearse The Murder of Gonzago (the drama that Hamlet requests from them in Shakespeare’s play), and their rehearsal becomes the action of Hamlet itself, including the dumb show they will later perform for the court, Hamlet’s slaying of Polonius, and a foreshadowing of the pair’s own fate. Log in here. With this discovery, the conversation turns to... Rosencrantz and Guildenstern feel that during their conversation with Hamlet, they were assertive and able to win Hamlet's trust. Further Reading Stoppard includes many of Hamlet ’s most notable scenes in a … Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. The... Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead study guide contains a biography of Tom Stoppard, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, for example, aroused world-wide protest as the Chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, J. W. Fulbright, challenged the legality of America's military involvement in Southeast Asia and even Pope Paul VI pled for an end to hostilities. Copyright © 1999 - 2021 GradeSaver LLC. What question has been pursued throughout the play is answered in the... What is the author's tone in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, and what effect does tone have upon the reader's perception of theme. Again they act out the encounter, open the new letter and see to their dismay that it now asks the king to kill them. The turn towards working-class themes in British theatre began with John Osborne's Look Back in Anger (1956). Night and Day (1978) takes place in a fictionalized African country and examines the role of the press in a dictatorial third-world country while Cahoot's Macbeth (1979) concerns the repression of theatre in Czechoslovakia. Left to themselves, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern confess that they are baffled and frightened by the scene in which they find themselves, having as they do no recollection of anything prior to that day. Jenkins, Anthony, editor, Critical Essays on Tom Stoppard, G.K. Hall, 1990. This impression finds its culmination in Act III, when Hamlet is discovered lounging under a gaudily striped umbrella, reduced to something not quite classically Shakespearean. They're … Londre, Felicia Hardison, Tom Stoppard, Frederick Ungar, 1981. . In the second edition, Stoppard uses Shakespeare's words instead of his own to end the play with the final speeches from the ambassador and Horatio announcing that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead. The two talk about Hamlet, and Rosencrantz describes his own fear of death, until Claudius and Gertrude arrive and inquire after the Prince. An excellent discussion of Stoppard’s themes that includes a chapter on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In an attempt to prepare for their encounter with Hamlet they act out the probable scene to come, with Guildenstern pretending to be the Prince. When, at the beginning of the play, Rosencrantz exults that eighty-five consecutive winning calls of heads has "beaten the record," Guildenstern says "don't be absurd," and the clever allusion to Beckett speaks volumes to those who catch the joke. As toss after toss comes up heads, Guildenstern concludes that the law of probability is no longer in effect and speculates with some anxiety on what the cause of this strange phenomenon may be. 1966: The American Civil Rights Movement is backed by the wide-sweeping 1964 Civil Rights Act, aspects of which are contested in a number of southern states that resist school integration. And in 1968, Stoppard acknowledged the impact that Beckett and others had had on writers of his generation, saying "it seemed clear to us, that is to say the people who began writing about the same time that I did, about 1960, that you could do a lot more in the theatre than had been previously demonstrated. Extended Character Analysis. Stunned, the pair debate the issue and resolve to do nothing. The Player offers him the troupe’s young boy, Alfred, for his pleasure, but Guildenstern demands an actual play; the actors are preparing to comply when Rosencrantz and Guildenstern find themselves suddenly transported to Elsinore. "Play" in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. Much of Stoppard's comedy comes, then, from the implicit contrast with Shakespearean solemnity. Critics like William Gruber eventually observed that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are given the opportunity for meaningful action (when they discover the letter condemning Hamlet) and lack the courage or character to act responsibly. Additionally, serious scenes from Hamlet become comical in the light of the audience’s prior knowledge of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s utter lack of comprehension regarding how they came to be where they are and what they are to do now that they have arrived. With his buddy's trousers comically gathered at his ankles and facing another complete failure, Guildenstern says quite simply, "there's a limit to what two people can do.". Word Count: 324. Influential British theatre critic Kenneth Tynan summed up this assessment succinctly, calling Stoppard "a cool, apolitical stylist," referring to Travesties as "a triple-decker bus that isn't going anywhere.". Tom Stoppard. 1966: Vietnam is becoming a full-scale military conflict. His characters themselves as dramatic devices by any suspicion of usefulness Thing sought after was a noble hero,.! Meaning of things, they express confusion about reality their meeting with the traditional Theatre of the human condition is. A valuable interview with the pair in mid-performance, Roger, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ( Guil ) betting... And other playwrights rejected the concept of a coin landing on heads over seventy-six in... 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